Andy Davis

Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System

High Blood Pressure/ Hypertension: High Blood Pressure or Hypertension is a condition where the blood pressure in the arteries is increased. Your heart pumps blood through your body and with every beat the blood flows. The Blood Pressure is the force of the blood that is pushing through your arteries and against the walls of your blood vessels. If the pressure is too high, the heart has to work harder to pump, which could possibly lead to organ damage and illnesses such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure or aneurysms. Hypertension or high blood pressure can be classified as essential or secondary. Essential hypertension is high blood pressure where the cause is unknown. Secondary hypertension is high blood pressure with a known cause. The cause can be directly from things such as kidney disease or tumors. Some causes of Hypertension are Smoking, Obesity, Diabetes, Insufficient calcium, potassium, and magnesium consumption, Vitamin D deficiency, Stress, Aging, Genetics, or Chronic kidney disease. Some symptoms of Hypertension are severe headaches, Fatigue, Dizziness, Nausea, Problems with vision, Chest pains, Breathing problems, Irregular heartbeat, or Blood in the urine.
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Leukemia: Leukemia is cancer of the blood. Someone who has leukemia has an abnormal production of blood cells, generally white blood cells. The DNA of new blood cells becomes damaged and this causes the blood cells to grow and divide rapidly in an abnormal way. Normal blood cells die after a while and are replaced by new cells produced in the bone marrow. The abnormal blood cells accumulate and occupy more and more space. As more and more space is occupied by these abnormal blood cells there is less and less space for the normal cells. This is how the person develops Leukemia. Some causes of Leukemia are viruses like HTLV-1 and HIV, exposure to Benzene and some petrochemicals, Hair dyes, and Leukemia is more common in people with Down Syndrome and are more common in twins. Some symptoms of Leukemia are poor blood clotting, affected immune system, anemia, nausea, fever, chills, night sweats, flu-like symptoms, tiredness, and headache.
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Anemia: Anemia is when the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin is low. Hemoglobin is a protein inside the red blood cells that transports oxygen. Malaria can cause Anemia as a result of malnutrition. There are many different kinds of Anemia but the most common are excessive blood loss anemia, excessive red blood cell destruction anemia or hemolysis anemia, and decreased or deficient red blood cell production anemia. Some symptoms of Anemia are fatigue, lethargy, poor concentration, sensitivity to cold temperatures, headache, Dry and flaky nails or restless leg syndrome. Anemia can be diagnosed by blood tests or physical examinations and the condition can be related to diet, medications, family history and medical history. People with Anemia may experience complications such as Pregnancy complications, fatigue, increased susceptibility to illness and infection, heart problems and nerve damage.

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Thrombosis: Thrombosis is a blood clot in a blood vessel. The two types of thrombosis are Deep vein thrombosis and Arterial thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis is a blood clot in a deep vein. The blood clot commonly occurs in the deeper veins in the thigh or calf but can occur in the deep veins of the arms. The condition can be very painful and can lead to serious complications. Symptoms of DVT are swelling in one or both legs, pain in one or both legs, warmth in the skin of the affected leg, red or discolored skin in the affected leg, visible surface veins and leg fatigue. Some causes of DVT are slowed blood flow from surgery or inactivity, damage to the blood vessels, and changes in blood from cancer or inherited factors that can cause the blood to clot more easily.
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Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arterial wall where the layer thickens, narrowing the channel of blood flow. It can occur anywhere in the body, but is most fatal when it happens in the heart, brain or blood vessels leading to the brain. The narrowing is because of the formation of plaques in the inner lining of the arteries. These plaques can be lipoproteins, decaying muscle cells, tissue, clumps of blood platelets, cholesterol, and calcium. They are found most often in people with high cholesterol. Some causes of Atherosclerosis are hypertension, smoking, diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, and a family history of heart disease. Atherosclerosis shows no symptoms until it is severe enough to restrict blood flow at which point could cause a heart attack or stroke.


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Outline: Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System
High Blood Pressure/ Hypertension:
  • A condition where the blood pressure in the arteries is increased.
  • Blood Pressure is the force of the blood that is pushing through your arteries and against the walls of your blood vessels.
  • If pressure is too high, the heart has to work harder - could lead to organ damage and illnesses such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure or aneurysms.
  • Essential hypertension is high blood pressure where the cause is unknown
  • Secondary hypertension is high blood pressure with a known cause
  • Causes: Smoking, Obesity, Diabetes, Vitamin D deficiency, Stress, Aging, Genetics, or Chronic kidney disease.
  • Symptoms: severe headaches, Fatigue, Dizziness, Nausea, Problems with vision, Chest pains, Breathing problems, Irregular heartbeat, or Blood in the urine.

Leukemia:
  • Cancer of the blood
  • An abnormal production of blood cells, generally white blood cells
  • Abnormal blood cells accumulate and occupy space
  • Less space for the normal cells.
  • Causes: Viruses like HTLV-1 and HIV, exposure to Benzene, more common in people with Down Syndrome and are more common in twins
  • Symptoms: Poor blood clotting, affected immune system, anemia, nausea, fever, chills, night sweats, flu-like symptoms, tiredness, and headache.

Anemia:
  • When the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin is low
  • Hemoglobin - protein inside the red blood cells that transports oxygen
  • Malaria can lead to Anemia as a result of malnutrition
  • Most common: Excessive blood loss anemia, Excessive red blood cell destruction anemia or Hemolysis anemia, and Decreased or deficient red blood cell production anemia.
  • Symptoms: Fatigue, lethargy, poor concentration, sensitivity to cold temperatures, headache, Dry and flaky nails or restless leg syndrome.
  • Can be diagnosed by blood tests or physical examinations
  • Condition can be related to diet, medications, family history and medical history
  • People with Anemia may experience Pregnancy complications, fatigue, susceptibility to illness and infection, heart problems and nerve damage.

Thrombosis:
  • A blood clot in a blood vessel
  • Two types: Deep vein thrombosis and Arterial thrombosis.
  • Deep vein thrombosis: blood clot in a deep vein.
  • Commonly occurs in the deeper veins in the thigh or calf but can occur in the deep veins of the arms.
  • Symptoms: Swelling in one or both legs, pain in one or both legs, warmth in the skin of the affected leg, red or discolored skin in the affected leg, visible surface veins and leg fatigue.
  • Causes: Slowed blood flow from surgery or inactivity, damage to the blood vessels, and changes in blood from cancer or inherited factors that can cause the blood to clot more easily.

Atherosclerosis:
  • A disease of the arterial wall where the layer thickens, narrowing the channel of blood flow.
  • Narrowing is because of the formation of plaques in the inner lining of the arteries
  • Plaques can be lipoproteins, decaying muscle cells, tissue, clumps of blood platelets, cholesterol, and calcium.
  • Most common with high cholesterol.
  • Causes: Hypertension, smoking, diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, and a family history of heart disease.
  • No symptoms until severe enough to restrict blood flow at which point could cause a heart attack or stroke.

Videos

**http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/Deep_Vein_Thrombosis.html** - Thrombosis
http://www.dnalc.org/view/15498-Hemoglobin-and-sickle-cell-anemia-3D-animation-with-no-audio.html - Anemia
http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/humanatlas1/vmc_white.asp?anid=0261&name=Chronic - Leukemia

http://www.healthscout.com/animation/68/47/main.html - Hypertension
**http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/health/20070408_HEART_FEATURE/index.html** - Atherosclerosis


Prevention and Treatment Tip Sheet

High Blood Pressure/ Hypertenion:

  • Quit smoking
  • Exercise
  • Eat a healthy diet and avoid salty foods
  • Reduce alcohol consumption
  • Eat foods with calcium.
  • Control your stress
  • Medication- Diuretics, Beta-blockers, Angiotensin converting enzyme, Calcium-channel blockers, Vasodilators, Centrally acting drugs
Leukemia:
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Avoiding high doses of radiation
  • Quit Smoking
  • Avoid exposure to Benzene
Anemia:
  • Consumption iron-containing foods and B-complex vitamins
  • Monthly B-12 injections
  • Injections of folic acid
  • Blood transfusions
  • Hormone injections
Thrombosis:
  • DVT - Do not sit for too long, Leg exercises.
  • Coumadin, Aspirin - anticoagulants
  • Avoid sitting or standing for too long after surgery
  • Exercising
Atherosclerosis:
  • Anticoagulant drugs
  • Vasodilator drugs
  • Balloon angioplasty
  • Endartectomy
  • Exercise
  • Quit Smoking

Circulatory Diseases and Disorders Vocabulary:
High Blood Pressure/ Hypertension: Condition where the blood pressure in the arteries is increased.
Leukemia: Cancer of the blood.
Anemia: Disease when the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin is low.
Hemoglobin: A protein inside the red blood cells that transports oxygen.
Thrombosis: A blood clot in a blood vessel
Atherosclerosis: A disease of the arterial wall where the layer thickens, narrowing the channel of blood flow.
Deep vein thrombosis: A blood clot in a deep vein.
Arterial thrombosis: A clot in your arteries, most commonly in your heart.
Chemotherapy/Radiotherapy/Bone marrow transplantation: Treatments for Leukemia.
Essential hypertension: High blood pressure where the cause is unknown.
Secondary hypertension: High blood pressure with the known cause.



Hyperlinks:
http://www.lls.org/all_page?item_id=7026&KNC-leukemia&gclid=COSM9tKxqqACFUFM5QodMgNzbA
http://www.bystolic.com/hypertension/symptoms-causes/
http://www.medicinenet.com/deep_vein_thrombosis/article.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/anemia/DS00321
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4440





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